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Construction and uses:

We want situations to be different about what they are (in the present, past or future).
Subject + WISH + verb with a tense back.

1/ REGRETS about PRESENT => WISH + PRETERIT => I wish you did …
You would like things to be different from what they are in present!
I’m too fat / not rich. I wish I was thin / I was rich.
I don’t know that! I wish I knew that!
Don’t tell it, it’s a secret. I wish you didn’t say it! It’s a secret.
He lives in Manchester. He wishes he lived in London.
Her husband is not rich. She wishes her husband was rich.
He’s late./ It’s raining. I wish he wasn’t late./ it wasn’t raining.
I’m not living in London. I wish I was living in London.
I’m going to NYC next week. I wish I wasn’t going to NYC next week.

You regret you cannot do something (NOW)? => WISH + COULD => I wish I could …
I can’t do it. I wish I could do something
I can’t repair the car. I wish I could repair the car. (but I can’t repair it)

=> WISH + PAST PERFECT = I wish you had done/known/said
I didn’t go on holiday this year. I wish I had gone on holiday this year.
I went to visit the museum. I wish I hadn’t gone.
I‘ve eaten too quick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so quick.
I haven’t studied for the test. I wish I had studied for the English test.
It was a secret! I wish you hadn’t said it!
I didn’t know that. I wish I‘d known that before!
They chose a different manager. They wish they’d chosen a different manager.

You regret that you couldn’t do something (past)?
I wish I couldn’t have done something.
I wish I could have gone to the party!

3/ WISH and FUTURE => WISH + COULD / WOULD (modal verbs)
REGRETS about something that didn’t happened!
We refer to abilities? WISH + COULD
I can’t play a musical instrument. I wish I could play a musical instrument.
COMPLAIN about something that won’t happened!
We refer to free will, a situation? => I WISH sb/sth WOULD …
He won’t help me. I wish he would help me. (I know he won’t help me)
He won’t pay the bill. I wish he would pay the bill. (but he won’t, I know!).
We refer to habits, things that somebody do repeatedly?
You’re making too much noise. I wish you would be quiet.
You keep interrupting me. I wish you wouldn’t do that.
My room-mate snores. I wish he wouldn’t snore. (fact: he snores)
=> I wish he didn’t snore. (fact: he didn’t snore) (here, you comment a past/present situation).
It’s raining? I wish it would stop raining. (I know it won’t).
He forgets my birthday! I wish my husband wouldn’t forget my birthday this year!

4/ WISH and FUTURE => HOPE + VERB (not « WISH ») + future event.
There’s a strike tomorrow! I hope some buses will still be running.
Will you tell me if everything is fine? I hope everything will be fine.
I hope … it will … I hope you will have a nice stay in New York.

5/ WISH + WERE => It’s the subjunctive form (a more formal english).
She’s not here! I wish she were here.
I’m not tall. I wish I were taller.
It’s Friday today! I wish it were Saturday today.
I want to be Doctor. I wish I were Doctor.

6/ « I wish to + verb » = « I want to + verb » (want is unformal, wish is formal, polite).
I want to see your manager. I wish to see your manager.
I want to make a complaint. I wish to make a complaint.

7/ « I wish you + noun », « I hope you + verb » => idea of « good wishes » + noun/verb.
Good luck. We wish you the best of luck. We hope you have the best of luck.
Have a nice day! I wish you a nice day. I hope you have a nice day.
Merry Christmas I wish you a Merry Christmas. I hope you have a Merry Christmas.
Happy Birthday! I wish you an Happy Birthday!
Remember: « wish + noun » or « hope + verb » : I wish you « good luck » / I hope you get luck.

After « I wish », verb tense is « more in the past » than the tense corresponding to its meaning …
I’m late. (Meaning in present) I wish + preterit => I wish I was on time.
I’ve worked late.(Meaning in past) I wish + past perfect =I wish I hadn’t worked so late.